Billy Miller


Billy Miller

DM Testa


    Secrets…there are those that we keep to save face.

    And then there are the ones that we hold onto tightly because to even acknowledge their existence would break our hearts.

Early in the spring of 1910, Ed Makley made the decision to keep the whereabouts of his oldest son, Charley, a secret. Some in St. Marys, already knew that Charley had left home a few years back but no one gave it much thought.

He’d headed west to look for work when his opportunities in Ohio went up in the proverbial puff of smoke. One or two of his relatives speculated that Charley might possibly find a bride like his uncle George had done many years earlier in Colorado. They sagely agreed that his prospects were much better in a place where no one was aware of his family history.

Not many outside of Charley’s immediate family knew what had really happened. So on April 26th, 1910, it wasn’t such a big thing to tell the Ohio census taker that Charley still lived at home. In fact, Ed Makley may have been engaging in a bit of wishful thinking.

The past few years were not kind. His wife, Martha, had departed the area, divorcing him. Now Ed was left with four children to bring up by himself. Perhaps the idea that his eldest boy was still there, working as a stone cutter along his side; gave Ed some solace.

Or maybe he figured that it wasn’t anybody’s damn business, including the government’s as to where and what Charley was up to. Either way it wouldn’t be the first time nor would it be the last time; that he would change the facts to better suit himself. Ed Makley had issues with the truth.

So where was Charley?

He was cooling his heels nearly a thousand miles away at the Idaho Sate Penitentiary in Boise. But the better story is how he had arrived there.


The Chain Works

In June of 1934, the writer, Jim Tully, was granted a quick interview with Charles Makley. Since Makley was sitting on Death Row while John Dillinger was still on the loose, the warden of the Ohio State Penitentiary feared the worst. He was disinclined to grant any perceived “favors” to Makley. It took the intervention of Ohio’s governor (who had appointed the warden) to wrangle a meager ten minutes for Tully despite the fact that at the time, Tully was a well-known author.

Tully had known Charles Makley back in the early 1900’s in St Marys, Ohio. At the time of the interview, it seems likely that Jim Tully was looking for bigger fish than Charles Makley, hoping that his interview could provide a lead.  In the subsequent newspaper article that followed, Tully mentioned how he’d like to meet John Dillinger.

However there was honor among thieves. Makley kept his mouth shut and Tully found that he needed filler. So he chose to relate how he and a young Charley had labored together as heater boys at the chain works factory when both were around twelve years old.

Tully also went on to mention Makley’s kindness. As an orphan, Tully didn’t have much in the way of clothing. Charley gave him one of his own coats to wear. And on occasion when Jim Tully was late, Charley covered for him.     

It is interesting to note that the chain works provided inspiration for Jim Tully on several occasions. He devoted a whole chapter to it in his autobiographical novel, Emmet Lawler, which was based on his early years. 

In his own words, Tully described working there.

    There was a great chain factory at one end of town, wherein worked about four hundred men and boys. The fires of the furnaces were made to burn strongly by an immense blast which whirled through heavy zinc pipes, from which smaller pipes led down, like the roots of a tree, and were attached to each individual furnace. On quiet days, the roar of the factory could be heard above everything else for miles around.  It was a steady continuous roar, as incessant as the sea upon a silent shore.

    During the winter months heater boys were engaged in numbers to help the chain makers.

    The link-heater boy’s (sic) duty is to hang the open end of the links downward in the fire, out of which the chain maker takes them as they are heated, in endless rotation, one after another.

    Each winter morning, long before older people were out of bed, the boys would file through the silent streets on their way to the factory. Many were clad thinly, and without overcoats, as they faced the winter winds.

    Arriving at the factory, they would dip pieces of waste in crude oil, and light them, and place the burning pieces on the furnaces to enable them to see. In a short time the factory would be full of the smoke from burning rags and a dim, uncertain light. When the boys had finished the blast would be turned on when the engine started, and the roar of the factory would commence for the day.   

    Each chain maker employed his own heater boy, and paid him out of the money earned each two weeks.

    The boys would often throw small links at each other across the shop, and one morning a lad threw a link a far distance at another fleeing lad. It sailed through the air, whirled about, and missed the intended object. The masterful owner was taking his walk through the shop like a mad king late for breakfast. The link hit him right in the very center of his high and mighty forehead. Wild consternation beat the air with wings of terrible passion. A cat had not only looked at a king, but had hit him with a link. There was more confusion than if ten link –heaters had been killed. The foreman hurried to the stricken owner who held his forehead as though he had received a death wound. A boy laughed outright and was promptly discharged.

    The owner was taken to his office, while the discharged boy picked up his coat and dinner bucket, while boys gathered around him. They refused to allow their comrade to be discharged, and they formed a committee to carry their defiance to the owner.

    The Superintendent came to meet them, and was told their message. He was frantic with rage.

    “Get the hell out of here,” he yelled to the committee.

    “All right,” retorted the leader, “but if we git out, we take every kid in the shop with us.”

    “Take ‘em and be damned,” was the answer.

    The boys taught the older chain makers a lesson in standing together. They filed out one by one. Their faces were seamed with smoke and grime, and their clothing was tattered and soiled. But they were determined youngsters holding their battered dinner buckets in their hands. One boy shouted, then all joined in, “Hurray!”

    They stood, a defiant army, outside the gates of the factory. The roar of the shop became still and a winter calm settled on all around them. Snow began to fall and the wind became sharper. They started singing.

    “What did you do with your summer’s wages? Holy Moses, ain’t it cold?”

    Chain makers strolled out and tried to coax the boys to return. A message was written to the great owner, himself. It read,

    “We’re goin’ back home now, and we’ll stay there till the boss takes our buddy back. When he takes him back, he kin blow the whistle like the devil in the mornin’ and we’ll all pile out again.”

    Signed – The Heater Kids

    Without waiting for an answer they strolled in a body toward the town. A messenger soon followed and told them to return to work in the morning, and to bring the discharged boy with them.

    Excerpted from Emmett Lawler, Jim Tully, 1922, Harcourt, Brace, and Company, New York, New York

Charley Makley was one of those “Heater Kids”. Chances are good that he wasn’t the one who had laughed since Jim Tully described him as being “the quietest and gentlest” of the bunch but no matter. On that cold blustery winter day, Charley stood loyally beside his comrades.


An Unfortunate Turn of Events

When the gentle breezes of spring rolled around, Jim Tully flew the chain works coop while Charley stayed on. Makley became apprenticed to one of the chain makers, working at that for approximately three and a half years.  

Time frames with regards to Charles Makley’s early life are a bit fuzzy to say the least.

However there are events which occurred that seem likely to have dictated his circumstances. One of the earliest was the finances of the Makley clan.

By 1902, money was tight in the Ed Makley household. The family had grown to five children including a new baby. Ed and his wife Martha were facing foreclosure on property they had purchased. Every penny was needed to pay off the loans that they taken out.  

Out of necessity sometime after Charley turned twelve in November of 1901 (the majority of censuses taken throughout Makley’s lifetime agree on a November 1889 birth date), he stopped school and started work as a heater boy. Later on in life, Makley would confirm that he attended school up through the seventh grade. 

The three dollars or so that Charley was able to bring home every week helped keep food on the table while the Makleys dodged foreclosure. So in 1904, when the owners of the chain works decided to close up shop and move out of St. Marys, the family was devastated. Over three hundred men and boys, including Charley Makley were out of work for over a year while negotiations stalled to re-open the factory.

There have been numerous stories through the years relating how Charley Makley engaged in petty thievery at this stage of his life. Surprisingly no newspaper articles from this period have surfaced which even mention him.  However there were others in his family making the news.

In 1902, out of town newspapers were covering the real estate scam that Charley’s paternal grandparents George and Caroline Moeglich (Makley) along with his uncle Al participated in.      

It seems that the trio took out a loan for $1500.00 using property that no longer belonged to them as collateral. The creditor based out of Indiana, was unfamiliar with the St. Marys real estate. When they discovered there was no legitimate collateral, they sued the Makleys for fraud and won.  

Two months after that trial, Ed and Martha Makley had their turn in the local headlines when their foreclosed property was sold off. And the hard times continued.

In the fall of 1905, the chain works finally resumed operations again in St. Marys. A full contingent of men and boys returned to work, grateful for the steady employment. Charley resumed his apprenticeship; however the year-long break caused him to question whether he wanted to spend the rest of his life as a chain-maker.   

On Saturday, July 21st, 1906, his question was answered with a resounding bang. At around 11:00 am, right before lunchtime, an explosion of gas and oil rocked the chain works.  A fire immediately broke out which consumed the entire building. The St. Marys volunteer fire department arrived and quickly went to work in an effort to salvage the building. Luckily no one was killed although two firemen were hit by bricks from the falling walls as the building collapsed.

A day later, the general manager of the Standard Chain Company, arrived in St. Marys. He announced to a relieved audience that the plant would be rebuilt immediately. He went on to state that all employees would be taken care of until the new factory was completed.

Some of the employees would work on the construction of the new factory while the remainder could go to the company’s plants in Pennsylvania and Indiana     

By this time, a teenage Charley was probably ready for an adventure. Money was scarce at home so he may have been encouraged take one of the jobs offered in Lebanon, Pennsylvania or better yet, Marion, Indiana which was just over the boarder from St. Marys.

The job became even more enticing when another bank began foreclosure proceedings on the Makley home. As Ed Makley saw things, it would be a win-win solution with one less mouth to feed and the money Charley earned being sent back home to St. Marys on a regular basis.

And so Charley was packed off to work at the Marion, Indiana factory. What his family didn’t realize was the Indiana Chain works supplemented their work force with convict labor.

Factories including the Standard Chain Company had been plagued by the inability of production to keep up with demand at the turn of the Twentieth century. Reoccurring problems with workers and union disagreements had stopped work in several states.

The Indiana Chain Company located in Marion, came up with a unique solution in 1905. They began a five year contract with the Indiana Reformatory located in Jeffersonville, for inmate labor to help meet their quotas.

Located in the south east corner of the state, Jeffersonville was Indiana’s original prison until overcrowding caused a second facility to be opened in Michigan City in 1860. The two became known respectively as State Prison South and State Prison North.    

Early prison reform encouraged the creation of a separate environment for youthful offenders so the State Prison South became the Indiana Reformatory in 1897 and remained in Jeffersonville until 1923 when it relocated to Pendleton.

The arrangement with the Indiana Reformatory was based on the idea that the young inmates would be able to learn a trade which could provide them with an honest living once they were released. In principal it all sounded good until reality set in.

The inmates earned approximately one third of what a layperson would be paid yet they were expected to be equally if not more productive. Steep quotas had to be filled by the overworked yet underpaid young men. The inability of the unions to represent this particular group of workers added insult to injury. The only ones who benefited from this arrangement were the Indiana Chain Company and the Reformatory board of managers.

It was into this environment that a seventeen year old Charley Makley arrived. No one is sure how long he stayed or where he went afterwards because for two long years, Charley Makley fell off the map.


By Any Other Name   

Evidently Charley Makley took the saying “go west young man” to heart. At some point between 1907 and 1909, he accomplished several things, leaving the mid-west and his job at the chain works far behind. Probably the most critical was his friendship with a boy who would have considerable influence on how Makley lived the rest of his life. 

James Lanning was also a Midwesterner, born in Peoria, Illinois on August 27th 1890. Like Charley, he had been shuffled around as a youngster. By the time he was nine years old, his father had died so he was living with his maternal grand parents in Levan Township which is located in the southern part of Illinois, just east of St. Louis, Missouri.  

In 1907, Lanning mother also died, causing him to leave home at the age of sixteen. In order to make a living, Lanning traded on his light blue eyes and good looks to work as a hotel waiter before heading west.

By the fall of 1909, Lanning and Makley turned up in Idaho Falls, Idaho which is located in the southeastern portion of the state. Things had changed. In addition to the new mailing address, the two had become partners in crime.

At the time the boys were similar in height (5”6 ”) and weight (150 pounds). James Lanning was considered a “well-built” lad by his contemporaries while Charley was described as being “regular” of build with scald marks on his left shoulder and arm.

Neither had severed ties completely with their families back home. Both received letters sporadically at Idaho Falls. However, Charley continued to ramble throughout the southern part of the state while Lanning remained in Idaho Falls, taking steady employment at the local sugar beet factory. The cessation of his travels was caused by a local girl.

Although the smitten Lanning was traveling far less than Makley, courtship presented its own particular set of problems. In addition to a regular paycheck, Lanning began supplementing his income with shoplifting. At the end of November 1909, he was caught taking a fur overcoat from the front of O. K. Wilbur’s store. The chief of police was put on the trail and soon caught up with Lanning.

As soon as he was arrested, James Lanning confessed. He tried to avoid jail by offering to pay the fine immediately but to no avail. He was carted off to spend the weekend locked up before appearing before the town justice to plead guilty and cough up $25.00.     

Not to be outdone, Charley also had a run-in with the law that made the newspapers. It was and still is the earliest recorded instance of Makley being arrested that has come to light.


Charged With Drunkeness 

    Billy Miller was locked up last evening at Powell on the charge of being drunk.

    December 20, 1909, Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho  

Although the blurb is brief, it happens to be pretty informative. Charley Makley had begun using the alias “Billy Miller” when he arrived in Idaho. What’s interesting is this alias wasn’t a total fabrication.

Back home in Ohio, in the early 1900’s, there was a popular State Senator by the name of William E. Miller or as he was better known…“Billy” Miller.

A life-long Democrat, Miller had an easy-going charm and ability to connect with folks, traits that caught Makley’s fancy. Miller was a smooth talker who could unite various members of his fractious party by using his sharp sense of humor. Based on newspaper reports of the time, “Billy” Miller was held in high regard by almost everybody, including it seems an impressionable Charley Makley.

Makley may have tried to talk his way out of jail at the time. But alas Idaho’s “Billy Miller” needed a bit more practice with the local authorities. His drunk and disorderly was newsworthy enough to make the papers over two hundred miles away since Charley had picked a spot where very little went on.

Powell was located in an 80,000 acre tract north and west of Idaho Falls. At the time, there wasn’t much there besides a post office which had just opened and a ramshackle saloon. Three years later, the post office closed.

As soon as Charley was turned loose, he high tailed it south to Idaho Falls where he and James Lanning celebrated their reunion with another bender that landed both back in jail.

Once sober, the twosome decided they would need to find a new line of work. At the dawning of the New Year and a brand-new decade, the duo became a trio and a plan was hatched.


Granny Gets Even

William Minard Heath or as he was more commonly known…Dick, was nineteen years old when he met up with Charley Makely and James Lanning. Although he was the tallest of the group, it was hard to tell since he carried himself in a perpetual slouch. Dick was handicapped. His left hand was missing the little finger and his adjoining finger was unable to straighten out.

He had developed a friendship with Makley and Lanning when his younger sister, May, became romantically involved with James Lanning. They did have some things in common since the three were similar in age. But Dick Heath had not had any run-ins with the law and he still lived at home with his parents in Idaho Falls.

The Minard Heath family was firmly entrenched in the area. Dick’s grandfather was one of the three founding settlers in Blackfoot which was the county seat for Bingham County where Idaho Falls is located. And Dick’s grandfather had also been an important person in the local Mormon Church.

However Dick Heath didn’t have much excitement in his life. The freedom that Charley Makley and James Lanning had may have seemed exotic to him since he had dropped out of school in the fifth grade, to work as a laborer rather than learning a trade.     

On January 11th, two things happened. The house in which Dick Heath’s family lived caught on fire and James Lanning was laid off from his job at the sugar beet factory.

Thankfully the fire was quickly contained with no one injured except for the roof of the house. Lanning was less lucky.

Normally the factory stayed open for a few more weeks to carry the workers through the harshest part of the winter but in 1910, the owners decided to close early. This left Lanning with little to do and no money coming in. Less than a week later, he, Charley, and Dick decided to do something about it.

On January 17th, the trio rented a buggy and headed a few miles north to Lincoln, Idaho where the sugar beet factory was located. Over the past week James Lanning had been busy casing a barber shop and confectionary store that sat across the street from the factory. Initially, he had notice the key was left in the front door so he stole it, then several days later he actually went inside to get the lay of the land.

On the night of the 17th, the boys tied their rented livery up in front of the Lincoln meeting house. Dick Heath stood watch outside the barber shop while Lanning and Makley unlocked the front door. Unbeknownst to Lanning, the inner door required a different key so Makley and Lanning proceeded to kick in that door and rummage around the place. Barber tools, tobacco and a box of candy for May Heath were taken, all of which amounted to about $40.00.

The trio took their stolen goods back to Dick Heath’s house, returned the buggy and congratulated themselves on pulling off their heist. The police were notified about the burglary the next day but had no solid leads to work on.

On the morning of February 5th, the law got lucky. Dick Heath’s grandmother put a call into the police station. When the officers arrived, Granny Heath insisted that they arrest Dick because he was abusing her. One of the officers got her into another room away from the rest of the family and began to question her further. By this time, Granny had started to soften up about Dick. She told the officer that Dick shouldn’t be arrested after all. He was turning over a new leaf by going into the barber trade since he had recently secured some tools. In fact, she had even seen them the night before.

Dick evidently eavesdropped on enough of the conversation to know that the jig was up. He ran out of the house and headed up town with the police in hot pursuit. Shortly afterwards he was arrested.

The chief of police threw Dick in jail and then got a warrant to search Minard Heath’s house. The officers took a look around the Heath home but were unable to find any barber tools. However they did turn up two packages of Bull Durham tobacco. Dick Heath’s father quickly spoke up to tell the cops that he had bought the tobacco in town. The officers asked him why he was so worried since tobacco wasn’t even mentioned in the search warrant, only barber tools.

Suspicious because of the Heath family’s behavior, the chief decided to get tricky. He bought a box of the same kind of candy that had been stolen then had Dick brought in to him.

When Dick entered the room, the chief took a big bite of one of the chocolates. He told Dick with great relish that the candy was pretty good. In fact, he wished they had found more. Then he offered Dick a piece. When Dick nervously declined, the chief informed him that his father had “squealed.” The chief knew that there were others involved. By the information his father had given, the rest had already been captured. And Dick was implicated as being the ring leader.

Dick panicked.

The police chief realized that Heath was close to cracking. He quickly suggested that Dick come clean so he might get a shortened sentence or possibly even be pardoned for helping bring the true criminals to justice.

Dick Heath fell for the ruse. Not only did he confess to what happened on the night of the burglary but he named the other two. Relief must have loosened his tongue, because he revealed that the trio had been armed. The person who had rented the buggy had lent Dick a gun. Evidently Dick’s reason for borrowing the pistol was to keep up with Lanning and Makley.

The pieces fell into place with the police chief. In mid-November, a hardware store and lumber company had been broken into. Firearms valued at $175.00 were taken. At the time, no one had a clue as to who the robbers were. Now they did.   

The cops began looking throughout Idaho Falls area for Lanning and Makley. In the meantime, a second search was conducted at Dick Heath’s home.  This time, the tools were found in a hole underneath the cellar floor. Letters from Lanning and Makley were also discovered.

Idaho Falls police told newspaper reporters that they had found two letters on Dick Heath when he was captured which contained the whereabouts of Lanning and Makley. This seems doubtful since Dick Heath had fled his home in a total panic.

The timing of the discovery suggests that the letters turned up during the second search of the Heath residence. And they may not have been addressed to Dick at all but rather to his sister, May. 

Dick’s confession did him no good. By that evening he was sitting in the Blackfoot jail, awaiting the arrival of his friends. And the law of two counties geared up for a manhunt. 


Alias Miller and Montell

James Lanning and Charles Makley took off shortly after the barber shop burglary. They left Bingham county and headed north and west, even further than Powell this time, to the rugged terrain of Lehmi county. To make things more difficult for the law, they took on aliases, Makley resumed his Billy Miller persona and Lanning became Ray Montell.   

The hideout that they had chosen would have done Jesse James proud since it was located in a remote area of Idaho. 

Junction, Idaho located near the 7,500 foot Gilmore Summit was a fairly isolated area. The Pittsburg & Gilmore Railroad operated a line running from Armstead up to Junction to service the mining and ranching that went on in the area.

Junction had been settled in 1871 by “Grandpa” Stevenson and his wife, Minera, who had migrated west from Missouri. Stevenson established a blacksmith shop, livery barn, and hotel. He was also the first postmaster of the town.

When Stevenson’s wife died, he decided to remain in the area. His widowed sister, Susan came shortly afterwards with seven children in tow. Other settlers straggled in, building log cabins on the wide open spaces and engaging in cattle ranching.  

By February of 1910, the railroad was looking to expand their services to haul out the rich ore which was plentiful at the time. They were just completing a section of the track that ran further north of Junction to Salmon, the county seat. Meanwhile another team was surveying the land to build tracks that would connect Junction directly to Idaho Falls by way of several mining camps.

On the evening of February 5th, Deputy Sheriff James Mahaffey of Salmon, Idaho got a telegram from the Idaho Falls police chief advising him to be on the look-out for Lanning and Makley who were rumored to be hiding out in Junction.

Unfortunately the railroad was still under construction so Mahaffey set out the next day on horseback battling the bitter cold and snow drifts to make his way fifty miles south to Junction.  When he arrived, no one recognized the names Makley or Lanning.  Junction had but a handful of residents but there were enough miners, cowpokes and drifters who passed through to make identification difficult, especially since Mahaffey had no photographs to work from.

But James Mahaffey didn’t give up easily. He’d had plenty of experience capturing rustlers and other outlaws who tried to give the law the slip by hiding out in Lehmi county. Instead of leaving, he hung around, listening in on the gossip. Soon he heard stories about a pair of boys, who despite their age were already hardened characters. One miner angrily complained that he was sure that he had lost to them in cards because they were using a marked deck.

Mahaffey suspected that he’d found who he was looking for and asked for details. Once supplied with the names Billy Miller and Ray Montell, he began checking out when the duo turned up in Junction. When he discovered how recently they had arrived, he promptly arrested the unsuspecting pair without incident. The trio then retraced Mahaffey’s trail back north to Salmon where Makley and Lanning were locked up in the Lehmi county jail.

Mahaffey contacted Sheriff Harry Buckling of Bingham county to come get the boys. By this time, both Makley and Lanning had broken down, confessing to the burglary. To add insult to injury, when Sheriff Buckling arrived, Makley and Lanning had to make a second freezing trip by stagecoach back down to Junction before they could board a train that would take them to join their buddy, Dick Heath in the Blackfoot jail.                

On February 21st, 1910, Charley Makley and James Lanning were tried together. The prosecuting attorney charged that they had “unlawfully, feloniously, and burglariously” entered the barber shop. On the same day, Dick Heath stood alone at his own trial.  All three pled guilty to the charges of burglary.

At the time, Makley who was actually twenty years old lied about his age, stating that he was nineteen instead. As the oldest of the three, he probably was hoping not to be singled out for a harsher sentence. He wasn’t disappointed; the judge didn’t play favorites. For the burglary of forty dollars worth of goods, the judge gave the three boys sentences of no less than one year and no more than five years of hard labor to be served at the Idaho State Penitentiary, located in Boise, Idaho.   


Coming on April 11 , 2010,

The Conclusion of Billy Miller

A Very Special Thanks

The towns of Powell and Junction no longer exist. Without the help of Penny Casey, of the Idaho County GenWeb project, I never would have located those ghost towns that Charley Makley spent time in.  



Twelfth Census, June 6, 1900, Levan Township, Illinois

Twelfth Census, June 23, 1900, St Marys Township, Ohio

MILLER, Wednesday, June 26, 1901, The Newark Advocate, Newark, Ohio

Chain makers Strike, Thursday, September 5, 1901,The Daily Herald, Delphos, Ohio

Charge of Fraud, Monday, June 9, 1902, The Times-Democrat, Lima, Ohio

SOLD, Thursday, August 7, 1902, The Times – Democrat, Lima, Ohio 

Progressive Men of Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, Fremont, and Oneida Counties, Idaho,  1904 A.W. Bowen and Company, Chicago, Illinois

Prison Made Shirts to be the Product of Convict Labor in Indiana State Prisons, Saturday, March 24, 1906, The Logansport Pharos, Logansport, Indiana

Explosion Caused Great Damage At St. Marys At Noon Saturday, July 26, 1906, The Auglaize Democrat, Wapakoneta, Ohio

Explosion Followed By Fire Destroyed the Chain Works at St Mays Last Saturday, July 26, 1906. The Auglaize Republican, Wapakoneta, Ohio

Convict Labor is Hit, Thursday, April 25, 1907, The Logansport Pharos, Logansport, Indiana 

From Down the State, Thursday, April 25, 1907, The Lake County Times, Hammond, Indiana

Reformatory Contract Void, Wednesday, May 1, 1907, Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel, Fort Wayne, Indiana

Order of Sale – Martha and Ed Makley, June 4, 1907, Auglaize County Court, Wapakoneta, Ohio

The Chain Works, Souvenir Book Commemorating Home Coming Week, July 1st thru 7th, 1907, St. Marys, Ohio 

Advertised Letters, September 28, 1909, Idaho Falls Times, Idaho Falls, Idaho

New Town Named “McCollum”, November 11, 1909, Idaho Register, Idaho

Burglars Take Firearms, November 16, 1909, Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho

Tales Tersely Told, December 7, 1909, Idaho Falls Times, Idaho Falls, Idaho

Sugar Campaign Is Closed, January 11, 1910, Idaho Falls Times, Idaho Falls, Idaho

Tales Tersely Told, January 11, 1910, Idaho Falls Times, Idaho Falls, Idaho

Brief Local News, December 20, 1909, Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho

Pittsburg-Gilmore Activity – Says Railroad Is Headed This Way, February 2, 1910, Idaho Register, Idaho

Police Trap Three Thieves, February 15, 1910, Idaho Falls Times, Idaho Falls, Idaho

Prison Packets for William Minard Heath, James Lanning, and Charley Makely, February 21, 1910, Old Idaho State Penitentiary, Boise, Idaho

In the District Court, Friday, February 25, 1910, Idaho Republican, Bingham County, Idaho

Thirteenth Census, April 26, 1910, St Marys Township, Ohio

Thirteenth Census, May 3, 1910, Idaho State Penitentiary, Boise, Idaho

Lehmi Sheriff Has Rustlers, July 24, 1911, Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho

Tully Feels He’s with Living Dead in Visit to Makley, July 22, 1934, The Indianapolis Sunday Star, Indianapolis, Indiana


Photos and Illustrations:

  • Jim Tully and Mildred Barthelemey Photo – June 25, 1934, Carroll Daily Herald, Carroll Iowa,
  • Chain Works Interior Photo – Undated
  • Chain Works Fire Photo – Vertical Files, St. Marys Public Library, St. Marys, Ohio
  • Lebanon, Pennsylvania Chain Works Photo – 1902, Authors Collection
  • Charles Makley, James Lanning, William Heath Mug Shots – February 1910, Old Idaho State Penitentiary, Idaho State Historical Society, Boise, Idaho
  • Powell, Idaho Map - 1906, Rand McNally and Company, from the Business Atlas and Shippers Guide
  • Billy Miller Photo - 1901, The Newark Advocate, Newark, Ohio
  • Beet Sugar Factory, Idaho Falls, Idaho Postcard – 1910, Gray News Company, Salt Lake City, Utah 
  • Barber Shop Photo – Undated, Authors Collection
  • Man and Buckboard Photo– 1909, Authors Collection
  • Junction and Salmon, Lehmi County,  Idaho – 1909,  Patten, William and J.E. Homas, New York: P.F. Collier and Son, from The New Encyclopedic Atlas and Gazetteer of the World

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